ISSN 1308-8734 | E-ISSN 1308-8742
Review
Sigmoid Volvulus
1 Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey  
Eurasian J Med 2010; 42: 142-147

Key Words: Intestinal obstruction, Sigmoid colon, Volvulus
Abstract

In sigmoid volvulus (SV), the sigmoid colon wraps around itself and its mesentery. SV accounts for 2% to 50% of all colonic obstructions and has an interesting geographic dispersion. SV generally aff ects adults, and it is more common in males. The etiology of SV is multifactorial and controversial; the main symptoms are abdominal pain, distention, and constipation, while the main signs are abdominal distention and tenderness. Routine laboratory findings are not pathognomonic: Plain abdominal X-ray radiographs show a dilated sigmoid colon and multiple small or large intestinal air-fluid levels, and abdominal CT and MRI demonstrate a whirled sigmoid mesentery. Flexible endoscopy shows a spiral sphincter-like twist of the mucosa. The diagnosis of SV is established by clinical, radiological, endoscopic, and sometimes operative findings. Although flexible endoscopic detorsion is advocated as the primary treatment choice, emergency surgery is required for patients who present with peritonitis, bowel gangrene, or perforation or for patients whose non-operative treatment is unsuccessful. Although emergency surgery includes various non-definitive or definitive procedures, resection with primary anastomosis is the most commonly recommended procedure. After a successful nonoperative detorsion, elective sigmoid resection and anastomosis is recommended. The overall mortality is 10% to 50%, while the overall morbidity is 6% to 24%.

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