ISSN 1308-8734 | E-ISSN 1308-8742
Original Article
Once the Light Touch to the Brain: Cytotoxic Effects of Low-Dose Gamma-Ray, Laser Light, and Visible Light on Rat Neuronal Cell Culture
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Atatürk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey  
2 Department of Pharmacolgy, Atatürk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey  
3 Department of Biophysics, Atatürk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey  
4 Department of Physics, Atatürk University School of Educating, Erzurum, Turkey  
Eurasian J Med 2016; 48: 76-83
DOI: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2015.0304
Key Words: Neuron, cytotoxicity, cell culture, apoptosis, laser light, radiation
Abstract

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of gamma-ray, laser light, and visible light, which neurons are commonly exposed to during treatment of various cranial diseases, on the viability of neurons.

 

Materials and Methods: Neuronal cell culture was prepared from the frontal cortex of 9 newborn rats. Cultured cells were irradiated with gamma-ray for 1-10 min by 152Eu, 241Am, and 132Ba isotopes, visible light for 1-160 min, and laser light for 0.2-2 seconds. The MTT tetrazolium reduction assay was used to assess the number of viable cells in the neuronal cell cultures. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to determine Na, K, and Ca levels in cellular fluid obtained from neuronal cell culture plaques.

 

Results: Under low-dose radiation with 152Eu, 241Am, and 132Ba isotopes, cell viability insignificantly decreased with time (p>0.05). On the other hand, exposure to visible light produced statistically significant decrease in cell viability at both short- (1-10 min) and long-term (20-160 min). Cell viability did not change with 2 seconds of laser exposure. Na, K, and Ca levels significantly decreased with gamma-ray and visible light. The level of oxidative stress markers significantly changed with gamma-ray.

 

Conclusion: In conclusion, while low dose gamma-ray has slight to moderate apoptotic effect in neuronal cell cultures by oxidative stress, long-term visible light induces remarkable apoptosis and cell death. Laser light has no significant effect on neurons. Further genetic studies are needed to clarify the chronic effect of visible light on neuronal development and functions.

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