The Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Original Article

Isolation and Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophages from Wastewater with Phage Therapy Potentials Against Gram-Negative Bacteria


Department of Medical Microbiology, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey


Department of Medical Microbiology, Kastamonu University Faculty of Medicine, Kastamonu, Turkey


Department of Emergency Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey


Department of Biology, Dire Dawa University Faculty of Natural and Computational Science, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

Eurasian J Med 2022; 54: 157-164
DOI: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2022.21010
Read: 619 Downloads: 198 Published: 01 June 2022

Objective: The increase of multidrug resistance in bacteria has increased the efforts in search of alternative methods. The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize the lytic phages and assess their lytic activity against a number of gram-negative bacteria.

Materials and Methods: The phages and their respective hosts were isolated from wastewater collected from the municipal sewer system of Trabzon, Turkey. The lytic activities of phage were determined using the agar spot test. The identification and antibiotic susceptibility of host bacteria were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Phoenix 100, respectively. The phages were characterized morphologically using transmission electron microscopy. One of the phages, Enteroc21, which has a broad-host-range, was further characterized by genome restriction endonuclease analysis and burst size.

Results: Two phages infected strains of four different species, nine phages were able to infect 2-4 strains belonging to one or two species, and three phages showed lytic activity against only the hosts from which they were isolated. All phages belonged to the Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, and Podoviridae family based on trans- mission electron microscopy morphology. The Enteroc21 had more than 100 kb genome size and a burst size of 180 per infected cell. Most of the host strains were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and in particular, Achromobacter xylosoxidans TRAX 13 was multidrug-resistant showing resistance to cefepime, aztreonam, gentamicin, netilmicin, and ciprofloxacin.

Conclusion: This study showed that the isolated phages have the potential to be used in phage therapy against various bacterial infections, including multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cite this article as: Khorshidtalab M, Durukan İ, Tufekci EF, Nas SS, Abdurrahman MA, Kiliç AO. Isolation and characterization of lytic bacteriophages from wastewater with phage therapy potentials against gram-negative bacteria. Eurasian J Med. 2022;54(2):157-164.

EISSN 1308-8742